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These phases are overlapping and iterative. As an example, requirements can be added, changed, or dropped during the later phases if the technical solutions call for it. Likewise, the technical solution in the detailed specifications can change due to problems found in the testing and verification phase.
This phase is usually relatively short. In the architecture phase, the standards body decides about the architecture, that is, the principles of how to meet the requirements.
The architecture phase includes decisions about reference points and interfaces to be standardized. This phase is usually quite long and may change the requirements. After the architecture phase, the detailed specification phase starts. In this phase the details for each of the identified interfaces are specified. During the detailed specification of the interfaces, the standards body may find that it has to change decisions made either in the architecture or even in the requirements phases. Finally, the testing and verification phase starts. It is usually not a part of the actual standardization in the standards bodies but takes place in parallel through testing by vendors and interoperability testing between vendors.
This phase is the final proof of the standard. During the testing and verification phase, errors in the standard may still be found and those errors may change decisions in the detailed standard.
Who Is 'Really' Leading In Mobile 5G, Part 1: Tech Innovations And Standards
Albeit not common, changes may need to be done also to the architecture or the requirements. To verify the standard, products are needed. Hence, the implementation of the products starts after or during the detailed specification phase. The testing and verification phase ends when there are stable test specifications that can be used to verify that the equipment is fulfilling the standard. A parallel partnership project called 3GPP2 was formed in RAN WG1 deals with the physical layer specifications. RAN WG2 deals with the layer 2 and layer 3 radio interface specifications.
After approval, the organizational partners transpose them into appropriate deliverables as standards in each region. The organizational partners are obliged to identify regional requirements that may lead to options in the standard. Examples are regional frequency bands and special protection requirements local to a region. The specifications are developed with global roaming and circulation of UEs in mind. This implies that many regional requirements in essence will be global requirements for all UEs, since a roaming UE has to meet the strictest of all regional requirements.
Regional options in the specifications are thus more common for base stations than for UEs. The specifications of all releases can be updated after each set of TSG meetings, which occur four times a year. The 3GPP documents are divided into releases, where each release has a set of features added compared to the previous release. The date shown for each release is the day the content of the release was frozen. HSPA has evolved to incorporate technology advances such that its current evolution state, release 11, is technologically capable of meeting the most significant IMT-Advanced requirements.
LTE evolution is described in more detail in the companion book to this one . Fixed The original family of six 1. For each radio interface, M. The actual specifications are maintained by the individual SDOs, and M. ITU-R first concluded studies for IMT-Advanced of services and technologies, market forecasts, principles for standardization, estimation of spectrum needs, and identification of candidate frequency bands . Evaluation criteria were agreed, where proposed technologies were to be evaluated according to a set of minimum technical requirements. All ITU members and other organizations were then invited to the process through a circular letter  in March After submission of candidate technologies in , an evaluation was performed in cooperation with external bodies such as standards-developing organizations, industry fora, and national groups.
The target of the process was always harmonization of the candidates through consensus building. As for the corresponding IMT specification, it contains an overview of each radio interface, followed by a list of references to the detailed specifications. The report will cover trends of future IMT technology aspects by looking at the technical and operational characteristics of IMT systems and how they are improved with the evolution of IMT technologies.
The spectrum work has involved studies of spectrum sharing between IMT and other technologies. Adequate spectrum availability and globally harmonized spectrum are identified as essential for IMT-Advanced. The applicability of these new bands varies on a regional and national basis. Lin, E. Moloudi, M.
Lentmaier, and A. Severinson, A. Graell i Amat, and E. Piemontese and A. Pedersen, A. Graell i Amat, I. Andriyanova, and F. Andriyanova, F. Buchberger, A. Graell i Amat, V. Aref, and L. Graell i Amat and G. Graell i Amat, G. Liva, and F. Jerkovits, G. Pfister, A. Graell i Amat, and F. Lindberg, A. Graell i Amat, and H. Sandgren, A. Ivanov, F.
Graell i Amat, and P. Sheikh, C. Fougstedt, A.
Graell i Amat, P. Johannisson, P. Larsson-Edefors, and M. Kumar, E. Ivanov, C. Graell i Amat, A. Alvarado, and E. Andriyanova and A. Krishnan, M. Khanzadi, N. Krishnan, Y. Wu, A. Graell i Amat, T. Colavolpe, A. Graell i Amat, and T. Graell i Amat, F. Invited paper. Rosnes, M. Helmling, and A. Mehrpouyan, A. Nasir, A. Graell i Amat, and R. Kennedy, " Joint phase noise estimation and data detection in coded multi-input-multi-output systems ", IET Communications, vol. Schwandter, A. Beygi, E. Agrell, P. Johannisson, M. Karlsson, A. Makki, A. Krishnan, A. Eriksson, G. Alvarado, E.
Alvarado, A. Roua Youssef , Alexandre Graell i Amat.
Alexandre Graell i Amat , Eirik Rosnes. European Transactions on Telecommunications. Save references If you have installed Zotero or Mendeley on your computer you can use a plugin to extract references from the publications you see. Showing 11 research projects. Alexandre Graell i Amat Communication Systems. Swedish Research Council VR.
Roman Sokolovskii Communication Systems. European Commission Horizon Erik Agrell Communication Systems. Christoffer Fougstedt Computer Engineering Chalmers. Kevin Cushon Computer Engineering Chalmers. Anders Larsson Photonics. Magnus Karlsson Photonics. Peter Andrekson Photonics. Lars Lundberg Photonics. Alireza Sheikh Communication Systems. Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.
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