Originally the guilds were formed to help their members gain employment and to uphold standards of craftsmanship. Various skill levels were distinguished, among other ways, through the use of secret handshakes and symbols. In addition to learning the craft, members of the guilds also received esoteric knowledge, which in turn attracted non-craftsmen members to the guilds.
Drawing on the past, these individuals, who started to call themselves Freemasons, incorporated ritual and symbolic language, mostly relating to the building trades and specifically to the building of King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. After the creation of the Grand Lodge of England, in , Freemasons unified and regulated themselves. The English Masonic Constitution of declared that Freemasons should not prevent others from joining the fraternity based upon the perspective member's nationality, race, or religion. Freemasonry began admitting Jews as members in the mid-eighteenth century, first in England and then later in the Netherlands, France, Germany, and other countries.
Nevertheless, European Freemasons tended to be ambivalent about who they allowed to join their organization. In some countries and in some locations, Masons allowed Jews to join their lodges. Other countries and other lodges, however, took deliberate steps to reject Jews from becoming members. The antisemitism that some Jews experienced while trying to join fraternal lodges was one reason for the creation of Jewish fraternal organizations, such as B'nai B'rith.
German Jews founded the Berlin branch in By , they accounted for 70 percent of all Masons in Germany and numbered about 47, men. Thus, a German Jew had to apply to a Humanitarian Lodge if he wanted to have any chance of joining a German Masonic lodge. In , the Humanitarian Lodges had 24, members, and less than 3, of these were Jews.
Right-wing, conservative political leaders in Europe began to link Jews with Freemasons in the eighteenth century. Conservatives and Catholic clerics initially painted the Freemasons as hostile to religion and to the accepted aristocratic and clerical order. Since Masonic lodges were generally located in the larger cities of western Europe and England, where the majority of west European Jews lived, a rural distrust of an urban influence helped to cement the link between Jews and Freemasons.
Conservatives and clerics throughout Europe blamed the coming of the French Revolution as well as all of its excesses, in part, on perceptions of a liberal, anti-clerical, and anti-aristocratic philosophy of the Freemasons. During the nineteenth century, both antisemites and those opposed to Freemasonry argued that Jews manipulated Masonic ideology and international connections for nefarious purposes. They charged that Freemasons operated as front men for the Jews who preferred to remain inconspicuous and that the perceived Masonic belief in racial equality and human progress was a tool to serve Jewish interests, including the establishment of Jewish emancipation.
Among the most vociferous proponents of this thesis were conservatives in the Roman Catholic Church and members of the aristocracies in western and central Europe. The Library alone had reached 3, volumes before he was able to relinquish it. In when presented with a handsome watch and chain for his decade of effort, he had responded:. His was not the first loss.
Eight other non-founding members preceded him, while Besant and one other also died in Gould was responsible for some of the sharpest, published disputation within QC, yet he it was who delivered the first paper, and who was elected Worshipful Master [WM] when Warren stood down, after two terms. After his death in a colleague claimed:. His Masonic fame rested principally on the success of the History of Freemasonry , published in separate volumes from to , and subsequently revised and re-printed numerous times.
When published, however, the books carried only his name. Hamill disclosed:. To this friend I stand under a peculiar weight of obligation, from his familiarity with several modern languages… [li]. He also specifically thanked Rylands, and Woodford:. Elsewhere his acknowledgments were equally clear. In an review of work by Speth he wrote:.
I shall premise that the excellent paper read by Bro Speth [to QC], has no warmer admirer than myself. It is in every respect an ornament to the columns of [AQC] and one hardly knows whether to pay the greater tribute of respect to the patient industry of the writer, or to the masterly manner in which his arguments are arranged. Speth in and not long back from Cuba, had recorded his first tentative steps in research: [lvi]. When some months back, finding myself master of much spare time, I began to investigate the old Minutes of our Lodge, with a view to writing its history, my intention was merely to jot down a short summary of the principal events connected therewith — such as might perhaps cover a couple of sheets of foolscap, and would form a short paper to be read in Lodge, if deemed worthy of that honour.
He told how his curiosity had then taken hold:. As, however, my interest in our doings gradually increased, so did I find more and more difficulty in rejecting this fact and the other, until my notes alone formed quite a bulky paper. I then determined to make my history as exhaustive as in me lay, and soon discovered that this required the acquisition of more information than could be supplied from our own annals, involving me in researches for which my previous experience had hardly fitted me.
The work, however, fascinated me…. Newly inspired, Speth was, I believe, recruited to explore some foreign-language material but provided Gould with more complete accounts than were expected and Gould found himself only having to make minor adjustments. When awarding the Belgian prize, the trustees singled out The History for special mention.
Of all these works submitted the most important, without doubt, is the grand History of Freemasonry by RF Gould. But this work…although presenting the most complete picture of the external history of our institution, is dumb, or nearly so, respecting its internal history…We have thus been forced, in spite of well-merited admiration, to leave Bro. Although The History can be read in its entirety as a dissertation on research best practice, Gould himself was ambiguous.
He then says:. In the main, however, while carefully discarding the plainly fabulous narrations with which our Masonic system is encumbered, I am of opinion that the view to which Schlegel has given expression is the one we shall do well to adopt. He says:.
Each of the four has not only greatly distinguished himself in the general highway of Masonic research, but has also in a manner peculiarly his own struck out for himself some new pathway or side track of enquiry, which if diligently pursued cannot but result in the recovery of a portion of the long lost learning of the Fraternity….
In The History , Gould made clear he believed that organised Freemasonry, in , was already less than it might have been due to important knowledge having been lost, rejected or suppressed. This crucial point appears to have been his alone and is unlikely to have survived if the work was not principally his. In Volume 1 of The History he wrote:. For the sake of convenience…the mythico-historical period of Freemasonry will be held to have extended to … [lix]. Insights into what applications for membership were made, which accepted, which rejected and why, would have been useful.
Woodford begged to differ, saying he. He was a freemason who believed in the traditional teachings and..
- Navigation menu.
- Mastering OpenVPN?
- Carbohydrate Chemistry Volume 29.
He could remember the time when Masonic lectures were very infrequent and unpopular affairs, when a syllabus of lectures was a thing unknown… [lxi]. And that, perhaps, is its only justification. The QC member explained that:. Responses were muted from his fellow-founders. In Mathers began to teach the theory and practice of Ritual Magic to a carefully selected minority.
The founder Gould regarded so highly, Woodford, had been editor of the London Freemason , and of The Masonic Magazine from to He concluded with:. This present theory…may not lead to the results some of us anticipate from it, when we have mastered the essential and imperative conditions of fact, evidence and certainty. For him it was necessary to keep searching, and his preferred location for digging was not a secret. Shortly before his death in December, , he sent a letter to close friend and fellow Mason:.
Dear Brother Westcott,. It confers upon the possessor who understands the meaning to grant the old Rosicrucian secrets and the grades of Heoos chruse, or Golden Dawn. She did live at Ulm. Hockley now being dead I know of no-one else who could help you. Yours sincerely,. AFA Woodford. Westcott first attended QC as a full member, No 15, in December, He notes that:.
On this occasion, founding members spoke up, Rylands agreeing with Hughan, but Gould argued:.
The Origin and Evolution of Freemasonry Connected With the Origin and Evolution of the Human Race
In no Court of Justice would the evidence [just presented] be admissible, without direct proof of the actual existence at some time of Robert Padgett, to say nothing of minor legal points which would be freely raised. Our ritual presents us with ample internal evidence that the mystery of the craft lies deeper than a mere scheme of moral maxims. Our ritual contains distinct prayers, addressed to the clearly defined one God.
In reply, Rylands asserted that the WM had not met what he, Rylands, regarded as criteria for proof, while Gould expressed his doubts and counselled against jumping to conclusions. But that was essentially a study society with a series of simple graded ceremonies. Gilbert also has this:. Benjamin Cox, the Borough Treasurer of the seaside resort of Weston-super-Mare, had known Westcott in his days as a young pharmacist…in Somerset and had long been associated with him in a number of obscure Masonic Rites and Orders.
There was no connection between the new spiritualist movement and Freemasonry. In view of the rapid increase of Lodges of various Orders recognising no central authority and acknowledging no common form of government, a Ruling Body has been formed to take under its direction all Lodges of such various Orders in England and Wales and the Colonies and Dependencies of the British Crown as may be willing to join it. He consigns to a footnote the further information that in , the obviously pragmatic UGLE extended its authority by claiming:.
In support he quoted the usually much-maligned Yarker:. In that year he wrote to Irwin:. It is a treat to me and a pleasure to find there are still Masons in existence who are above prejudices and I am very interested in Lodge It amounts almost to a revolution. Freemasonry has no such definitive statement. It is clearer now why Gould found issues with the arguments of most of his co-founders, but in all of this, what has happened to the claimed Masonic interest in Enlightenment values?
The War Office and the Pursuit of Truth:. Adding careers to the personal details illustrates this:. When this Lodge was established Bro Bywater naturally became a member of it, and was the first brother who joined us. I am not forgetting that Bro Simpson is apparently the first joining member, but this brother we have always regarded as a founder, because the petition for a warrant would have borne his signature had he not been absent at the time as a war correspondent. He, nearly 30 years older than the youngest founders, had been an officer in the Coldstream Guards, but had resigned his commission to join the Church.
The full matrix represented here — the military, Masonry, Christianity, archaeology — is not accidental. His apparently meagre lodge attendance record from that point might suggest that his job had taken him away from Masonry, while his absences from QC after January might also imply he preferred his non-lodge duties. His career, in fact, shows his passions running in tandem. Warren mapped and assessed the railway potential of Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula and reported in detail on the key island-fortress of Gibraltar which is where it seems he first met up with Gould, Simpson and Besant.
Commercially-profitable tours to the Middle East were by mid-century generating a near-crush of enthusiastic amateurs and a frenetic atmosphere which ultimately produced everything from Arabic-styled fashions to Agatha Christie mysteries, but much more serious ambitions were behind the coalition of imperial, Masonic and Biblical adventurers. The project of a systematic survey of the Peninsular of Mount Sinai, with special reference to the Mosaic record of the Exodus , owes its origin to the Rev. Sir H James, RE. The decision-makers guiding the direction and shape of the Empire had been paying their own surveyors for centuries, but were pleased to have others do the work, to pay for it and to provide useful reports.
Surveyors and engineers were a vital part of the process:. The explosion of cartographic enterprise in early modern Europe was motivated by the specific requirements of powerful social formations — fiscal, dynastic, military, commercial and imperial.
The origin and evolution of freemasonry connected with the origin and evolution of the human race
Meshed together were individuals, the offices of State and intellectual networks:. Understanding of the value and application of maps and geographical information, scientific knowledge, and inter-connecting memberships of learned societies all played a part. Palestine could not be colonised but it could be brought into the British sphere of influence. Leading another expedition in the Sinai Professor Palmer was attacked and his whole party murdered. Warren was sent by the Admiralty in to discover the culprits which he did. I have had many difficulties to contend with in the last few days, and have been a good deal harassed on your behalf, in securing the safety of the metropolis.
The unsolved murders and friction with his senior police colleagues may have led to his resignation in November, , but after five months holiday, in he was seconded to Singapore for a period then was sent back to South Africa to fight the Boers. Imperialism necessarily involved state violence, and we know that missionaries for a time mediated and sought to calm reactions, but that some took the indigenous side, adding to the intellectual ferment. From the many publications written in the missions European philosophers based evolving interpretations of such issues as the origins of language, the development of private property and hierarchies in communal societies:.
Missionaries were obliged to become skilled propagandists to raise funds for their costly evangelical endeavours and gladly supplied metropolitan thinkers with the data on the place and evolution of humanity in the world. In the early nineteenth century this genre of literature…grew appreciably in size… [xcvi]. This new knowledge fed into university departments and created new disciplines. Theories about native peoples being obstacles to civilisation, or, alternatively, that they were cruelly suppressed by their rulers, or by slave traders, and needed to be saved were pushed in lectures and to Government.
Some scholars mounted arguments connecting modern beliefs with the Old Testament and ancient Europe:. Educated churchmen in the outposts of Empire sought — and found —reflections of their own morality and belief systems, and a universality of religion in the behaviour and principles of primitive people. The executive of societies such as the RGS were, no doubt, genuine in their intentions but were unaware of their own deeply-ingrained, cultural biases.
The scientific method and rational examination of evidence, ideas evolving from the beginning of the Enlightenment, were still a work in progress. There were many aspects to this. In the British Government announced legislation claiming to determine the future of Church assets, eg Irish bishoprics. This statement went on immediately to say:. It was proposed to effect this by a systematic exploration of the Holy Land, by excavation, by the collection of the traditions, manners, and customs of the people, and by an exhaustive research into the natural history, meteorology and geology of the country, the whole to be conducted under the direction of a Committee entirely undenominational.
He wrote:. It is, in fact, in recognition of these principles that the work has always been carried on. These [principles] were:. That whatever was undertaken should be carried out on scientific principles. That the Society should, as a body, abstain from controversy. That it should not be started, nor should it be conducted, as a religious society.
Besant explained that:. The object of the first law was to ensure that the results of enquiry and exploration, whatever they might prove, should commend from the world the same acceptance as a new fact reported from a physical laboratory, and that the work should be faced in the same spirit of fearless investigation into the truth as obtains in scientific research. The conduct of the principal part of the work by officers of the Royal Engineers has effectually ensured this object….
The Royal Engineers were men whose official position and professional reputation, as well as the methods of research which they adopted, place their reports beyond question. When Hayter Lewis died in , his biographer wrote of him:.
In a founding member, Reverend Sayce wrote:. The Bible lands are now better understood, better preserved, and better contextualised than for the previous years. The PEF was not un-denominational, and it could not prove the narrative of the Bible with regard to persons or events, but it could aim to achieve scientific objectivity with regard to landscape and buildings. Managing without a lodge that body:.
Membership doubled every decade, and in , there were 3, members. First: To investigate fully and impartially the most important questions of Philosophy and Science, but more especially those that bear upon the great truths revealed in Holy Scripture, with the view of reconciling any apparent discrepancies between Christianity and Science. While they showed the same concern to prioritise Scriptural truth, its other six aims were similarly clearer and more concerned with finding the best answer than those enunciated later by QC.
The VI also considered the formality of a lodge unnecessary but aimed at, and actually put in place a structure intended to provide the same educational and social resources as QC would later attempt:. Second : To associate men of Science and authors who have already been engaged in such investigations, and all others who may be associated in them, in order to strengthen their efforts by association, and by bringing together the results of such labours, after full discussion, in the printed Transactions of an Institution; to give greater force and influence to proofs and arguments which might be little known, or even disregarded, if put forward merely by individuals.
Third : To consider the mutual bearings of the various scientific conclusions arrived at in the several distinct branches into which Science is now divided, in order to get rid of contradictions and conflicting hypotheses, and thus promote the real advancement of true Science… etc. Fourth : To publish Papers read before the Society…with full reports of discussions… etc.
Fifth: … To make the results known by means of Lectures of a more popular kind, and to publish such Lectures. Six: To publish English translations of important foreign works… etc. Seven : To found a Library and Reading Room… etc. Up to , an unbroken stream of interpretations of issues such as Darwinism, the Geometry of Crystals, Metaphysics, and Scepticism had gone out.
QC had other predecessors. In , a report in The Building News began:. Some quarter of a century ago there was a society formed called the Society of the Freemasons of the Church, for the study of mediaeval freemasonry and buildings. The writer was introducing the first meeting of the Masonic Archeological Institute being held at Freemasons Hall in London:. Although the membership of the Institute is restricted to Freemasons, it is not conducted as a Masonic organisation, but as a simple literary society on the same basis as the other archeological associations with an annual subscription of half a guinea.
This society was being fostered by the building committee of Grand Lodge not Grand Lodge proper, so not surprisingly, the likely topics to be pursued centred on:. The record shows this did not happen. Its saving grace was to be the Masonic network in which it was embedded, but this was, at the same time, the cause of its long-term failure. One frustrated, apparently serious researcher believed the controlling faction at the top of the English Craft in the middle of the nineteenth century was not interested in Masonic learning, whether by an old or a new approach.
He says that his requests for appointments were not answered:. From the manner in which Dr Oliver wrote, it is evident that there were at the time two Masonic factions. I had ranged myself, without being aware of it, against the powerful one of Zetland and White, and was immediately considered by the ignorant party as a would-be innovator….
Similar animosity to that which lately disgraced masons and masonry in this colony [cviii] was at the time raging with full virulence among the members of the Grand Lodge in London. The discovery of new knowledges, as in Palestine, is one part of this requirement, another is the breaking down of walls around information kept hidden only to enhance the power of particular cliques. In giving publicity to the affairs of Freemasonry and to the activities of Grand Lodge The Freemasons Magazine was drawing attention to contemporary controversies and allowing a wider audience than the restricted circle of London Freemasonry to play a fuller part in the politics of the Craft.
He had continued:. The Object of this Society is the advancement of those branches of Archeological knowledge and research which, either directly or indirectly bear upon Masonry. Documents dated show a pertinent change:. The object of this Society is to promote the interests and to elevate the standing of Freemasonry, by systematic and scientific investigations into the early history of the Craft, and the origin and meaning of Masonic symbols, rites and traditions. Hitherto, there has been a wide-spread uncertainty among Masons as to the antiquity of the order; and it is to be lamented that, in many instances, the spare funds of the members, instead of being devoted to the promotion of the interests of the Craft, have been absorbed in convivialities….
As it is believed that the memorials of Freemasonry scattered throughout the world, in the form of ethnic tradition and symbolism, are of greater antiquity than the most ancient historical monuments, it is proposed to have papers read and published on the following…. The connection of Freemasonry with the religion and symbols of primeval men. The connection of Masonic symbols with the astronomical systems, and with mythical or pre-historic chronology. Traces of Freemasonry in the traditions, symbols, religious rites, and systems of initiation among existing races of savages.
Connection of Masonic symbolism with the primeval traditions of our race respecting Paradise and the Deluge. Connection of Masonic symbolism with the sacred structures of all ages. It went on to claim:. A volume of Transactions will be published, and will be forwarded, post free, to the members annually. This was the primary antecedent of QC, providing the bulk of its template, down to its unexamined assumptions. There was one thing missing, spelled out in a subsequent response to Simpson by Besant:.
It was this conviction…which also made me join the Quatuor Coronati, which you [Speth] are rapidly developing into the kind of Institute which I…thought to make of the Institute. Initial responses to the Correspondence Circle were encouraging. Initial thoughts for only one hundred copies of the annual volumes quickly expanded to and then to , with expectations of further and similar increases. But because an application and 1-years subscription were sufficient to trigger copies of the Transactions beyond the first year, the executive realised that:. The dues outstanding are enormous in their total of nearly GBP…There are over seven hundred brethren who have not paid their subscription for , and over four hundred who have not paid for !
The executive were instinctively reluctant to concede that they themselves might have questions to answer. Either a distant war or the apathy of other people was to blame. Speth in The falling off in applicant numbers is probably to be attributed in some measure, to the minds of Englishmen being pre-occupied, during recent times, by matters which have drawn away their attention from Masonic study.. But we feel that, in a lesser degree, it may also be due to a slackness on the part of our members, who have not taken every available opportunity of bringing our society before their Masonic friends….
From to , however, the numbers had plateaued and actually declined in , and There have been names on the CC list since it was first started. Five years after Speth, Secretary Rylands was harsher in his judgement:.
Search the Encyclopedia
Apathetic brethren are of course no use to us, not only because they do not care to read but because they do not pay their subscriptions. It would be kinder if they were to resign…. He pointed out that the number of active CC members had not increased since , even though GL records showed the potential:. Assuming average membership to be 30 would give Masons… According to latest statistics there are in the United States lodges with 1,, members and in all Canada lodges with 50, members. It included:.
Rare Freemasonry Books
During that year the number increased to In the past year  30 new members have been admitted, bringing our muster roll…up to 71…The membership is made up as follows:- 1 District Grand Lodge, 9 Lodges, 2 Royal Arch Chapters, 1 Literary Society and 58 Brethren. Compared with the number of Freemasons in Queensland, our list of members…is only 1. In April, , he was publicising the fact that:. In , notices placed around the world in Masonic periodicals showed a revised system was still intended to attract by its cheapness rather than reflect the real cost of the product:.